North Woods Field Guides PO Box 107  Wevertown


Coniferous Trees of the North Woods

Jack Pine~ Pitch Pine~ Red Pine~ Scotch Pine~ White Pine~
 Black Spruce~ Norway Spruce~ Red Spruce~ White Spruce
Red Cedar~ White Cedar~ Balsam Fir~ Tamarack~ Hemlock

Jack Pine

Height~ Up to 70 feet tall.
Needles~ In groups of two, 3/4-1 1/2 inches long. Needles are curved and form a distinct "V" shape. Dark green in color and stiff not flexible.
Cones~ 1 1/2-2 inches long, curved and usually pointing toward the branch.
Bark~ Dark brown with a reddish tint, thin and scaly.

Pitch Pine                            Back to top

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles~ In groups three, 3-5 inches long. Yellow green in color and stiff, not flexible
Cones~ 2-3 inches long hanging at  right angle to the branch.
Bark~ Reddish/brown with deep fissures and broad flat ridges.

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Red Pine                             

Height~ Up to 90 feet tall.
Needles~ In groups of two, 5-6 inches long. Dark green in color and flexible.
Cones~ 2-3 inches long, conical in shape.
Bark~ Reddish/brown, thick with shallow fissures and broad flat ridges.

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Scotch Pine

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles~ In groups of two, twisted in shape. 1 1/2-3 inches long, bluish/green in color and stiff not flexible.
Cones~ 1 1/2-2 inches long.
Bark~ Reddish/orangish brown in new growth. Grayish brown and scaly on old growth.

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White Pine

Height~ Up to 100 feet tall.
Needles~ In groups of five, 3-5 inches long. 3 sided, soft and flexible, bluish green in color.
Cones~ 5-10 inches long, oblong in shape and drooping from the branch.
Bark~ Dark gray/brown with shallow fissures and broad flat ridges.

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Black Spruce

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles~ 1/2 inch long, silvery/bluish green in color and 4 sided.
Cones~ Purple/brown color up to 1 1/2 inches long.
Bark~ Grayish/brown color, thin and scaly

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Norway Spruce

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles~ 1-1 1/2 inches long, 4 sided, dark yellow/green in color. Branchlets and twigs droop from the main branch. 
Cones~ 6-7 inches long
Bark~ Grayish/brown with thick large flaky scales.

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Red Spruce

Height~ Up to 80 feet tall.
Needles~ 1/2 inch long, silvery/bluish green in color, 4 sided.
Cones~ Purple/brown in color, up to 1 1/2 inches long.
Bark~ Grayish/brown in color, thin and scaly.

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White Spruce

Height~ Up to 70 feet tall.
Needles~ Blue/green in color up to 1 inch long and 4 sided.
Cones~ 1 1/2 inches long. Very similar to Red spruce but needles and cones are slightly larger. White Spruce twigs and buds are hairless while Red Spruce twigs and buds are usually hairy.
Bark~ Gray/brown in color with thin plate like scales.

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Red Cedar

Height~ Up to 40 feet tall.
Needles/leaves~ Flattened scale like against twig. Light green in color up to 3/4 of an inch long.
Cones~ Berry like cones bluish in color 1/4 inch in diameter.
Bark~ Reddish/brown in color and shreddy in appearance. Red Cedar usually has many branching trunks.

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White Cedar

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles/leaves~ Scale like leaves overlapping and tightly grouped on the twig. Yellowish/green in color up to 1/4 inch long.
Cones~ 1/2 inch long, woody not berry like as in Red Cedar. The small cones are erect on the branch and not drooping.
Bark~ Reddish/brown and shreddy in appearance.

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Balsam Fir

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles~ Flat and narrow up to 1 inch long and rounded at the tip. Dark blue/green in color above and paler below. Underside of needle has two white lines running the length of the needle as in Hemlock. Crushed needles very aromatic.
Cones~ Purple in color pointing upward from branch.
Bark~ Gray/brown in color, smooth and marked with raised cysts.

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Tamarack

Height~ Up to 60 feet tall.
Needles~ 1/2 inch long in random clusters along the branch. Needles yellow in the fall and being shed from the tree entirely. The only eastern conifer to shed it's needles completely each season.
Cones~ 1/2-3/4 inches long.
Bark~ Thin reddish/brown and scaly.

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Hemlock

Height~ Up to 70 feet tall.
Needles~ 3/8 inches long and 1/8 inch wide, flat and rounded at the tip. Dark green above and paler below with two white lines running the length each needle.
Cones~ 1/2-3/4 of an inch long.
Bark~ Reddish/Grayish brown with fissures and broad ridges.
 

 
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North Woods Field Guides PO Box 107  Wevertown


North Woods Field Guides
PO Box 107  Wevertown, NY 12886
Phone:  518-744-6011  Email: northwoodsent@aol.com

Copyright J. Greco / North Woods Guides Inc.  All rights reserved.